What is downstream production?

Upward and downward process

Many economists define the economic cycle as the movement of capitalist production through phases that have a successive relationship with each other: crisis, depression, revival and boom. The set of phases between two crises forms a capitalist cycle. Each crisis (also called downturn phase) is where one capitalist cycle ends and another cycle begins again. In the crisis all the contradictions of the capitalist system are manifested, which accumulate until they explode at a given moment. It is the moment of explosion of the so-called bubbles, which inevitably tend to form in the capitalist economy.

The third phase is the Recovery or Reactivation: once the floor has been reached in the previous phase, there is a revival of economic activities, increasing employment, production, investment and sales. All economic variables have an upward movement, which is reflected in economic activity in general. In the second phase, called depression or recession, there is a relative decline in all economic activity in general: production, trade, banking and services see their levels drop significantly. Technically, it is called recession when there is negative growth in the economy for two consecutive quarters. There are periods of stagnation where the production process practically stops. This constitutes the real downturn of the economy. But when we reach this phase, the elements that allow us to move on to the other phase begin to take shape.

What is the top-down method?

The top-down approach is still extremely popular today in project management. The term “top-down” refers to the fact that all instructions come from the top. … Each participant in the project receives clear instructions as to what the manager expects from him or her.

What is the bottom-up method?

Bottom-up design is the traditional method. Parts are first designed and modeled, and then inserted into an assembly and mates are used to place them. … The shape and size of these parts do not change based on the design unless another component is selected.

When can bottom-up planning be used?

Bottom-up Planning – Pros and Cons

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Business process improvement can be achieved when employees lower in the organizational structure are closer to the product, service or customer, and understand what is most needed and desired by the market.

Downstream messages

Delegation is a very powerful and difficult tool to apply, either by inexperience, immaturity or ignorance, learning when to delegate the Project Manager is something that is acquired with technique and experience.

The Project Manager delegates the work, not the responsibility for the result of the workDelegation within the Project: is a technique that consists of transferring the execution of tasks and functions to the direct collaborators of a command.well applied: delegation is a basic tool for time management, but it also increases motivation and facilitates the learning of the person to whom it is delegated. A correct delegation in the Project Team: it will always favor our role as Project Manager, as Project Director and, if it is correctly executed, it will allow us to minimize the risks associated to the achievement of the Project’s objectives, to achieve the Project Scope, the first objective of a Project Manager. We delegate the work, not the responsibility: Project Managers delegate to people we trust, we trust that they are capable of successfully completing the task we entrust to them, and we also give them an area of responsibility for decision making. Project Managers give authority to make decisions: we assume as our own their successes and mistakes, these are very important elements to take into account.

What is upward delegation?

15. – Upward Delegation: When the Project Manager allows solving problems that do not fall under his competence, but belong to a lower staff, we find ourselves with a type of delegation called Upward Delegation.

What is a top-down budget?

The purpose of a top-down budget is to get an overview of the budget possibilities and to see if the project is feasible from a budgetary point of view. To work with this budget, you must either create a time-based budget or start a detailed bottom-up budget.

What is top-down modular design?

Also known as top-down design, it consists of establishing a series of levels from higher to lower complexity (top-down) that provide a solution to the algorithm.

What is bottom-up and top-down

The popularity of the bottom-up approach to management is on the rise, but despite this, the debate between supporters of the two main approaches is still raging. Why are organizations now so concerned about changing their management style? If we compare the two approaches, the answer to this question becomes clear.

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The problems arising from the use of the top-down approach can be seen in many organizations with a traditional management style. Experience shows that top-down management often results in lower productivity and causes bottlenecks or so-called lockdowns. A lockdown gives the project manager total control over his team. These situations can lead to unnecessary discomfort and significantly delay the completion of a project.

The good news is that the situation is changing thanks to the transformations taking place in the way information is shared and received. More methods have emerged to successfully implement the practices proposed by the bottom-up management style. These methods include enterprise 2.0 technologies: wikis, blogs, social networks, collaboration tools, etc. These are making their way into organizations and changing the way projects are conducted. They have upgraded traditional project management to version 2.0, and bring with them new patterns of collaboration based on sharing effectively in a collaborative and flexible environment created by second-generation project management software. The project manager directs the work of his team and chooses the appropriate direction for the development of the project, based on the information received by each employee.

What is bottom-up budgeting?

A bottom-up budget creates a budget for each element or activity in the project scope structure and summarizes these budgets in order to provide a total project cost budget.

What is bottom-up and top-down?

The Ascendant is the sign that is on the easternmost horizon (east, rising or rising) at the exact moment of birth. The Descendant is the sign below the western horizon (west or west) at the same moment.

How to make a bottom-up estimate?

First decompose the work of the activity into smaller parts; then estimate the resources needed from the smaller parts; and finally add up all the resources from the bottom up.

Downward process

In general, the development of the world is progressive. However, both in nature and in society there are certain phases of development. In history we see different economic-social formations that follow one another, and each of them has its own internal dialectic of development, passing through a period of ascent and a period of descent. A given formation develops globally in an ascending line as long as its relations of production correspond more or less to the character of the productive forces. On the other hand, when the former begin to hinder and slow down the growth of the latter, it reaches the descending phase of the said formation. Therefore, it is not a question of a descending line of development of history in general, of the history of humanity, but of the history of a social formation, which finds itself in the imperious necessity of yielding its place to a higher stage of society.

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The point is that the productive forces of society are incessantly increasing, ensuring the succession and continuity of progress. At the same time, the forms of the relations of production and of social life, transitory, lag behind the needs of the development of production. Now, the ruling classes have always had their existence bound [130] to these outmoded forms, have clung to them to the end, and with them have left the scene of history. This is a general principle that can be arrived at by comparing the destinies of countries throughout their history. And in this we find one of the manifestations of the antagonistic character of progress in class society.

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